Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] — May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. Tito is best known for organizing the anti-fascist resistance movement known as the Yugoslav Partisans, founding Cominform, along with defying Soviet influence (see Titoism), and founding and promoting the Non-Aligned Movement. He died on May 4, 1980 in Ljubljana.
Josip Broz was born in Kumrovec, Croatia, then part of Austria-Hungary, in an area called Zagorje. He was the seventh child of Franjo and Marija Broz. His father, Franjo Broz, was a Croat, while his mother Marija (born Javeršek) was a Slovenian. After spending part of his childhood years with his maternal grandfather in Podsreda, he entered the primary school in Kumrovec, and failed the second grade. He left school in 1905.
In 1907, moving out of the rural environment, Broz started working as a machinist’s apprentice in Sisak. There, he became aware of the labor movement and celebrated May 1 – Labour Day for the first time. In 1910, he joined the union of metallurgy workers and at the same time the Social-Democratic Party of Croatia and Slavonia. Between 1911 and 1913, Broz worked for shorter periods in Kamnik (Slovenia), Cenkovo (Bohemia), Munich and Mannheim (Germany), where he worked for Benz automobile factory; he then went to Wiener Neustadt, Austria, where he worked at Daimler as a test driver.
On April 6, 1941, German, Italian and Hungarian forces attacked Yugoslavia. The Luftwaffe bombed Belgrade and other major Yugoslav cities. On April 17, representatives of Yugoslavia’s various regions signed an armistice with Germany at Belgrade, ending eleven days of resistance against the invading German Wehrmacht.
The Independent State of Croatia was established as a Nazi puppet-state, ruled by the Ustaša, a militant wing of the Croatian Party of Rights, which split off from it in 1929, went into exile in Italy, and was therefore limited in its activities until 1941. German troops occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as part of Serbia and Slovenia, while other parts of the country were occupied by Bulgaria, Hungary and Italy.
Tito did not initially respond to Germany’s invasion of Yugoslavia on Stalin’s orders because the Soviet leaders’s foreign affairs manager, Molotov, had signed the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact [source needed]. After Germany attacked the Soviet Union (June 22, 1941), Tito called (July 4, 1941) a Central committee meeting, was named Military Commander and issued a call to arms and communist revolution. Starting on July 7 in Bela Crkva, Yugoslav partisans began a widespread guerrilla campaign and started liberating chunks of territory. The activities provoked Germans into “retaliation” against civilians that resulted in mass murders (for each killed German soldier, 100 civilians were to be killed and for each wounded, 50). In the liberated territories, the partisans organized people’s committees to act as civilian government. Tito was the most prominent leader of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia – AVNOJ, which convened in Bihac on November 26, 1942 and in Jajce on November 29, 1943. In these two sessions, they established the basis for post-war organisation of the country, making it a federation. In Jajce, Tito was named President of the National Committee of Liberation. On December 4, 1943, while most of the country was still occupied by the Axis, Tito proclaimed a provisional democratic Yugoslav government.
Tito Josip Broz Partizan Jugoslavija Yugoslavia SFRJ communism Croatia Hrvatska YU chetniks cetniks cetnici komadant sava neretva draza mihajlovic ustasa ustase ante pavelic milan nedic racunajte na nas avnoj bratstvo i jedinstvo jajce revolucija stalin hitler nazi ivo lola ribar